Clinical practice guidelines for Wilson's disease (WD) have been published by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver in 2008 and 2012, respectively. Their focus was on the hepatic aspects of the disease. Recently, a position paper on pediatric WD was published by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. A need was felt to harmonize guide¬lines for the hepatic, pediatric, and neurological aspects of the disease and contextualize them to the resource-con¬strained settings. Therefore, experts from national societies from India representing 3 disciplines, hepatology (Indian National Association for Study of the Liver), pediatric hepatology (Indian Society of Pediatric Gastroen¬terology, Hepatology and Nutrition), and neurology (Movement Disorders Society of India) got together to evolve fresh guidelines. A literature search on retrospective and prospective studies of WD using MEDLINE (PubMed) was performed. Members voted on each recommendation, using the nominal voting technique. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to determine the quality of evidence. Questions related to diagnostic tests, scoring system, and its modification to a version suitable for resource-con¬strained settings were posed. While ceruloplasmin and 24-h urine copper continue to be important, there is little role of serum copper and penicillamine challenge test in the diagnostic algorithm. A new scoring system – Modified Leipzig score has been suggested with extra points being added for family history and serum ceruloplasmin lower than 5 mg/dl. Liver dry copper estimation and penicillamine challenge test have been removed from the scoring system. Differences in pharmacological approach to neurological and hepatic disease and global monitoring scales have been included. Rising bilirubin and worsening encephalopathy are suggested as indicators predicting need for liver transplant but need to be validated. The clinical practice guidelines provide recommendations for a compre¬hensive management of WD which will be of value to all specialties. ( J CLIN EXP HEPATOL 2018;-:1–25)

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Published on: 
Nov-2018

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