What is Acute liver failure?
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a disorder in which severe acute impairment of liver function, with or without alteration of consciousness in association with liver cell damage in a child with no recognised underlying chronic liver disease
What is Alagille syndrome?
- It is a Genetic disorder(JAG 1 gene) also known as arteriohepatic dysplasia.Children usually have a liver disease characterized by a progressive loss of the bile ducts within the liver over the first year of life and narrowing of the bile ducts outside the liver. This leads to a buildup of bile in the liver, causing damage to liver cells. Scarring may occur and lead to cirrhosis in about 30 to 50 percent of affected children.
How common is this condition?
- The incidence rate is approximately 1 case in every 100,000 live births.
What is the cause and risk of developing syndrome?
What is autoimmune hepatitis?
‘Autoimmune’ is made of two words- ‘auto’ +’immune’- implying altered immunity to cells of one’s own body. Immune system normally recognises ‘self ‘and ‘non-self’ cells. It kills only the ‘non-self’ cells. When there is an alteration in the immune system, it loses this ability to differentiate ‘self’ from ‘non self’; and kills ‘self’ cells.
When such attack of the immune system involves cells of liver, it causes Autoimmune Hepatitis. It may occur as only hepatitis or may occur as a part of other autoimmune diseases.
What is Biliary Atresia (BA)?
Bile is a digestive juice secreted from the liver. Bile passes into the intestine through a tube like structure which is called bile duct. Bile juice is important for the digestion of fat in food and for absorption of fat soluble vitamins. Poor development of the bile duct is called Biliary Atresia. This can lead to cholestatic (direct) jaundice or liver damage.
How common is Biliary Atresia?
Biliary Atresia occurs in 1 in 10,000 to 20,000 live births. It is one of the commonest causes of neonatal jaundice.
What is Budd Chiari syndrome?
Budd chiari syndrome (BCS) is a disease characterized by obstruction of the hepatic venous outflow tract which is the main channel taking blood from the liver to the heart. Liver receives the blood supply from the portal vein and hepatic artery. After circulating through the liver, the blood then flows out via the hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava (large blood vessel emptying into the heart). There are total three hepatic veins. The obstruction to the blood flow can be in the hepatic veins or in the inferior vena cava. If the obstruction is in the smaller veins of liver (hepatic venules), then it is called as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.
- What is choledochat cyst?
- A choledochal cyst is an uncommon inborn dilation of the hepatic or bile duct of the liver, the parcel which transports bile produced by the cells to the gallbladder and duodenum.
- What are the different types of choledochal cyst?
- There are five types of choledochal cysts. Type 1 Cysts is making upward about half of all choledochal cysts. This character is a cystic dilation of the extrahepatic bililary duct. Type 2 Cysts is an irregular pocket or sac opening from the duct. Type 3 involves a cyst that is located within the duodenal fence.
What is tyrosinemia?
Tyrosinemia is an inborn error or metabolism i.e., a genetic error in the breakdown of an amino acid called tyrosine. Due to the error in breakdown, tyrosine and certain by-products accumulate in the body and cause the various disease manifestations.
What is hepatitis C?
Hepatitis C is the disease of the liver caused due to infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is one of the common causes of chronic liver disease and may to progressive liver disease. It is also the leading indication for liver transplantation.
How common is hepatitis C infection?
It has been estimated that the globally around 2% are infected with HCV. 170 million people are chronically infected the virus. Also 3 to 4 million people get newly infected with the virus each year. In India around 1-2% of people are infected with this virus. The disease is common among children who require multiple transfusions like those suffering from Thalassemia and hemophilia.
What is organ donation?
Organ donation is a gracious act which provides an opportunity to save many lives after our death. The donated organs are transplanted into patients who are suffering form end stage organ failure. It gives a chance for second life in such patients.
What is brain death?
What is Galactose ?
Galactose is a simple sugar, less sweet than glucose or fructose. It is mainly found in dairy products. Galactose contributes directly to vital information processing in the body and is an important substance in cell and cell wall.
What is Galactosemia?
Galactosemia is a genetic condition (inherited as Autosomal recessive) wherein excessive galactose and its products accumulate in the body.
When we consume lactose (dairy products like milk, cheese, butter), our body breaks lactose into glucose and galactose. Glucose is needed as energy source by the body. Galactose is then converted to glucose by certain enzymes in the body.